GCOS Surface Network (GSN) - Data Access

Data availability

Near Real Time data are available at the GCOS Surface Network Monitoring Centre (GSNMC) products. Historical GCOS Surface Network (GSN) data are available online from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina. NCDC also maintains supporting metadata submitted by WMO Members. Annual and Monthly Global Average Surface Temperature Anomalies are available at the Japan Meteorological Agency. For data access see links below.

Coordinating Bodies for the GSN:

Atmospheric Observation Panel for Climate (AOPC) with WMO Commission for Basic Systems (CBS), WMO Commission for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS)

Information on the GSN:

Near Real Time Data - GSN Monitoring Centre (GSNMC) at the Deutcher Wetterdienst (DWD)

Monthly averages/totals of certain surface meteorological variables at the GSN stations are reported via the GTS shortly after the end of the month.

The GSNMC data set is available online at the Deutcher Wetterdienst (DWD). The final GSNMC data set is sent on a monthly basis to the NOAA/National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, NC, USA, after the QC of the CLIMAT temperature and precipitation data has been completed (in general about 2 months after the end of the observation month).

Data sets and products available at the GSNMC:


Japan Meteorological Agency

Global Average Surface Temperature Anomalies are available at the Japan Meteorological Agency web site:

Historical Data - NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)

 Quick links to GSN Datasets

Data sets at NCDC:

  • Global Surface Summary of Day Data (GSOD) data for 18 surface meteorological elements are derived from the synoptic/hourly observations contained in USAF DATSAV3 Surface data and Federal Climate Complex Integrated Surface Data (ISD). Historical data are generally available for 1929 to the present, with data from 1973 to the present being the most complete. For some periods, one or more countries' data may not be available due to data restrictions or communications problems. In deriving the summary of day data, a minimum of 4 observations for the day must be present (allows for stations which report 4 synoptic observations/day). Since the data are converted to constant units (e.g, knots), slight rounding error from the originally reported values may occur (e.g, 9.9 instead of 10.0). (data access)
  • GHCN DAILY  is a data set whose aim is to address the need for historical daily records over global land areas. Like its monthly counterpart (GHCN-Monthly), GHCN-Daily is a composite of climate records from numerous sources that were merged and then subjected to a suite of quality assurance reviews. The meteorological elements measured for the data set include, but are not limited to, daily maximum and minimum temperature, temperature at the time of observation, precipitation (i.e., rainfall and snow water equivalent), snowfall and snow depth. GHCN-Daily serves as the official archive for daily data from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Surface Network (GSN) and is particularly well suited for monitoring and assessment activities related to the frequency and magnitude of extremes. (data access)
  • GHCN MONTHLY  has been the official land surface mean temperature dataset since its release and has been widely used in several international climate assessments, as well as NCDC’s climate monitoring activities. (data access)