question: Why does the meteorological summer take place on June 1st and not at the solstice?
The solstice is based on the astronomical seasons. The astronomical seasons were created based on the rotation of the earth around the sun, so we have two equinoxes (spring and autumn) and two solstices (summer and winter).
Due to factors such as leap years and the Earth’s elliptical orbit, there are variations in the season length and season start date in the astronomical calendar. The fluctuations in both the length of the season and the beginning of the season vary from year to year and make it difficult to compare climate statistics from one year to another and from one season to another. For this reason, meteorological seasons were created.
The meteorological seasons are based on both the calendar and the annual temperature cycle and are divided into four groupings of three months each. In the northern hemisphere, the meteorological spring is March, April and May; meteorological summer is June, July and August; meteorological autumn is September, October and November; and the meteorological winter is December, January and February.
The start of the meteorological seasons is the first day of the month for the grouping. For example. Summer starts on June 1st as summer includes June, July and August. By dividing the seasons into three monthly sets, it is easier to calculate and compare seasonal statistics from year to year as well as from season to season. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration states that these statistics are useful for “agriculture, trade, and a variety of other purposes.” Weather forecasters also use the statistics for a variety of purposes, including average high and low temperatures for each day.
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